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eBook MUTUAL AID FACTOR EVLUTION (The Garland library of war and peace) download

by Kropotkin

eBook MUTUAL AID FACTOR EVLUTION (The Garland library of war and peace) download ISBN: 0824002679
Author: Kropotkin
Publisher: Dissertations-G (March 1, 1973)
Language: English
Pages: 362
ePub: 1723 kb
Fb2: 1609 kb
Rating: 4.2
Other formats: azw lrf docx rtf
Category: Political
Subcategory: Politics and Government

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. the main factor of evolution. Consequently I thought that a book, written on Mutual Aid as a Law of Nature and a factor of evolution, might fill an important gap.

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. The terrible snow-storms which sweep over the northern portion of Eurasia in the later part of the winter, and the glazed frost that often follows them; the frosts and the snow-storms which return every year in the second half of May, when the trees are already in full blossom and insect life swarms everywhere; the early frosts and, occasionally, the heavy.

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Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a 1902 essay collection by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin. The essays, initially published in the English periodical The Nineteenth Century between 1890 and 1896, explore the role of mutually-beneficial cooperation and reciprocity (or "mutual aid") in the animal kingdom and human societies both past and present.

Written partly in response to social Darwinism, Kropotkin's book drew on his experiences in scientific .

After examining the evidence of cooperation, he concluded that mutual aid is the most important factor in the evolution of species and the ability to survive. LibriVox is an online digital library of free public domain audiobooks, read by volunteers.

Peter KROPOTKIN (1842 - 1921). Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid, written while he was living in exile in England. It was first published by William Heinemann in London in October 1902. The individual chapters had originally been published in 1896 as a series of essays in the British monthly literary magazine, Nineteenth Century

Anthropologist Ashley Montagu declared that "Mutual Aid will never be any more out of date than will the . In this cornerstone of modern liberal social theory, Peter Kropotkin states that the most effective human and animal communities are essentially cooperative, rather than competitive.

Anthropologist Ashley Montagu declared that "Mutual Aid will never be any more out of date than will the Declaration of Independence.

It was chiefly evolved during periods of peace and prosperity; but when even the greatest calamities befell men-when whole countries were laid waste by wars, and whole populations were decimated by misery, or groaned under the yoke of tyranny-the same tendency continued to live in the villages and among the poorer classes in towns; it still kept them together, and in.

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Anthropologist Ashley Montagu declared that "Mutual Aid will never be any more out of date than will the Declaration . Physician and author Alex Comfort asserted that "Kropotkin profoundly influenced human biology by his theory of Mutual Ai. .

Comments: (7)
This review is specifically for the edition of "Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution" edited by Will Jonson with the Anarchist flag on the cover - it is very poorly executed. I have ordered one of many other editions available on Barnes and Noble's website, so I cannot speak with full confidence with regard to the text as of yet; however this edition appears to have been translated through Google with no attention to awkward phrasing or spelling errors. As the essays this book is comprised of were initially published in an English literary journal ("The Nineteenth Century"), it is surprising that this version has so clearly been translated (or possibly transferred) from an alternative source. The material used for the cover is very quick to capture the oil from your fingers, giving the book a stained appearance; and the dimensions of the pages coupled with weird margins give your hands a workout as you stretch to hold the book open. Very disappointing, especially considering that with the exception of two other editions it appears Amazon has very few alternatives to this version. I include a picture of a page to better show the small margins and a strange spelling error (the word circled).
Based on his extended and close observations of nonhuman animals and humans in eastern Siberia and northern Manchuria as well as his wide reading of various scientific authors, Peter Kropotkin concludes in Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution that the so-called incessant fearful "competition for food and life within each species," which is an "article of faith" with Darwinists, is in fact an exaggeration and does not play as significant a role in the evolution of new species as does the phenomenon of "mutual aid" and "mutual support."

Now it is important to note what Kropotkin does not say in order to best understand what he does say. He is not talking about the competition that exists among various species. That exists and is a factor in evolution. He is talking about competition within the same species. According to Kropotkin, competition within a species is the rare exception and not the norm in the animal kingdom and, with the exception of a few species, when it does occur within a species, it is usually under the most exigent of circumstances (e.g. scarcity of food). The norm for most species under most of their circumstances is a quasi-cooperative relationship of sociability and mutual aid. The less completion and the more mutual aid a species exemplifies, the better off that species is evolutionarily:

"The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress."

Within most of the bulk of the book, Kropotkin charts--at times in painstaking detail and citing many sources--the manifestation of mutual aid in a variety of nonhuman animal species as well as in humans during their technologically primitive stage of development, in conditions of "barbarianism" (i.e., in non-formally organized relationships on the outskirts of "civilized" states), in medieval cities, and in contemporaneous rural and urban settings.

Kropotkin also argues that it is ludicrous to assume that the "one single generalization" of "struggle for existence" could account for an "immense variety of facts" like "adaptations of function and structure of organic beings to their surroundings; physiological and anatomical evolution; intellectual progress, and moral development itself...." As a matter of fact, Darwin himself was not committed to the "one single generalization." Although Darwin never developed the idea, he indicated that something very much like mutual aid was a factor in evolutionary success and development. Quoting Darwin Kropotkin writes, "'Those communities...which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members would flourish best, and rear the greatest number of offspring.'" Kropotkin's task is precisely to explore this factor which neither Darwin nor his "numberless followers" ever pursued.

Kropotkin readily admits that contemporary human societies are not as pervasively given to mutual aid as they have been in the past and that "unbridled individualism is a modern growth." But he considers these developments unfortunate and contrary to the best and most evolutionarily beneficial instincts of humans--developments that resulted from the institutionalization of private property. Nevertheless, it's a Hobbesian myth that mutual aid is a rarity both historically and contemporaneously. Kropotkin provides an impressive list of contemporaneous endeavors that reflect the instinct for mutual aid (e.g. charitable giving) and without which (like the aid given to and by the laboring classes) many people "never could pull through all their difficulties." The sense of urgency and ethical responsibility to provide assistance to others is reflective of the instinct for mutual aid.

Although Kropotkin never explicitly makes the case in this work, one of his principal purposes is to make the suggestion that because mutual aid is a factor in human evolution, societies should order themselves to maximize mutual aid in their economic and social relations. Of course, many critics of Kropotkin are quick to point out that this implicit argument commits the naturalistic fallacy (deriving an "ought" from an "is"). For reasons too lengthy for me to develop here, this pat reply to Kropotkin misses one of the principal points that he makes throughout the work: viz. copious mutual aid maximizes well-being. It's an advantageous state of affairs. Concerns about possible fallacious arguments hardly address that compelling consideration.
Listen - this is a beautiful, generous, brilliant book - the words on the page are so fine. But the cover??? It's a pixelated image with an image copyright from Hampshire. I mean, this is like finding Kropotkin himself, left out naked in the woods.
The picture attached is quality - compare the PRINTED 'Kropotkin' with the COPYPASTE 'Hampshire'
Nothing against the school - I don't really know it. But this doesn't look like they care about what's in the book.
love to kropotkin
Despite being written in 1902, Kropotkin's overview of evolution in the animal kingdom is still ahead of most people's understanding of the science, particularly our understanding of human evolution. His message is clear. Progress in the evolution of social species - certainly of humans - is a function of mutual aid and support in our communities. While not discounting the influences of violence and competition, Kropotkin makes a point still not broadly understood today as being mainstream evolutionary theory, though it should be. Our progress as a social species is paced principally by the levels of mutual aid and support in our communities. Many institutions of "civilized" society stand more in the way of our helping and supporting one another than in promoting it, legalistic institutions in particular. Those who become apoplectic over any hint of "socialism" in our society would do well to study and contemplate this work in detail. If ever there were a prescient refutation of the Ayn Rand school of individualism and selfishness, Kropotkin's book is it.
This is the classical text of libertarian communism. Kropotkin illustrates, trough scientific observation, numerous examples of mutual aid and cooperation in the animal world and concludes that the most successful species are not the strongest and most aggressive but those where the individuals cooperate one with the other. While Darwin was right regarding the evolution of the species, Kropotkin proposes that the best model for life on the planet is one where people cooperate with each other, help each other and all contribute to the well being of humanity. The strongest is not always, actually almost never, the fittest. Piotr Kropotkin was a Russian Prince who got rid of everything he possessed and cut his ties with the Russian nobility to fight for justice for all. He was the first to comprehensively proposed the concept of libertarian communism that was to become so important during the Spanish Revolution of 1936-1939 that was suffocated in a blood bath by the fascists and Nazis.