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by Robert Bireley

eBook The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700: A Reassessment of the Counter-Reformation (European History in Perspective) download ISBN: 0333660803
Author: Robert Bireley
Publisher: Red Globe Press; 1999 edition (June 11, 1999)
Language: English
Pages: 231
ePub: 1827 kb
Fb2: 1897 kb
Rating: 4.7
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Category: History
Subcategory: World

Robert Bireley poses in his book, The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700: A. .And, as history has shown, that scrutiny will not be kind to Rome’s 700 year imprisonment of the Jews in the Papal States and elsewhere. The only error that I found was this.

Robert Bireley poses in his book, The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700: A Reassessment of the Counter Reformation, (The Catholic University of America Press, Washington, DC; 1999).

Unlike the traditional terms Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform, this book does not see Catholicism from 1450 to 1700 primarily in relationship to the Protestant . A Reassessment of the Counter Reformation.

Unlike the traditional terms Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform, this book does not see Catholicism from 1450 to 1700 primarily in relationship to the Protestant Reformation but as both shaped b.

The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700 : A Reassessment of the Counter Reformation. Part of the European History in Perspective Series). Unlike the traditional terms Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform, this book does not see Catholicism from 1450 to 1700 primarily in relationship to the Protestant Reformation but as both shaped by the revolutionary changes of the early modern period and actively refashioning itself in response to these changes: the emergence of the early modern state; economic growth and social dislocation; the expansion of.

A Reassessment of the Counter-Reformation. Author(s): Robert Bireley

A Reassessment of the Counter-Reformation. Author(s): Robert Bireley. Publisher: Red Globe Press. Pages: 238. Series: European History in Perspective. Europe across the seas; the Renaissance; and, to be sure, the Protestant Reformation.

The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700. The Catholic University of America Press. Like Evennett, Bireley argues for a period of Catholic renewal which, for all its special intensity, was not in any sense a mere reaction to or product of the Protestant challenge.

European history in perspective. 0333660803, 0333660811. Library availability.

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Title: The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700: A Reassessment of the Counter Reformation By: Robert Bireley Format: Paperback Number of Pages: 231 Vendor: Catholic University of America Press Publication Date: 1999. Dimensions: . 1 X . 6 X . 6 (inches) Weight: 10 ounces ISBN: 081320951X ISBN-13: 9780813209517 Stock No: WW209517. Publisher's Description. ▲. Bireley argues that early modern Catholicism was both shaped by and an active response to the profound changes of the sixteenth century, only one of which was the Reformation.

Robert Bireley, ebrary, Inc. Date. European history in perspective.

Unlike the traditional terms Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform, this book does not see Catholicism from 1450 to 1700 primarily in relationship to the Protestant Reformation but as both shaped by the revolutionary changes of the early modern period and actively refashioning itself in response to these changes: the emergence of the early modern state; economic growth and social dislocation; the expansion of Europe across the seas; the Renaissance; and, to be sure, the Protestant Reformation. Bireley devotes particular attention to new methods of evangelization in the Old World and the New, education at the elementary, secondary and university levels, the new active religious orders of women and men, and the effort to create a spirituality for the Christian living in the world. A final chapter looks at the issues raised by Machiavelli, Galileo and Pascal.Robert Bireley is a leading Jesuit historian and uniquely well placed to reassess this centrally important subject for understanding the dynamics of early modern Europe. This book will be of great value to all those studying the political, social, religious and cultural history of the period.
Comments: (3)
Nagis
Even high school students should have heard and read about the [Protestant] Reformation, a little bit about Luther, Calvin, Henry8 etc., but in my experience almost zilch about the Catholic Reformation, or Counter-Reformation, emphasizing the reactive portion of the period, or Early Modern Catholicism, Bireley's favored term, because it underscores that the Catholic reform was not just about containing Protestantism, but also about missionary efforts to evangelize the newly discovered Americas, and the new religious orders devoted to the poor, the sick, and the education of children.

Birely's book focuses on the Council of Trent, which occurred from 1545-1563,with many inactive years in between. Certainly the main object of the Council was to theologically distinguish traditional Catholic Christian teaching and practice compared to the Reformation. But on many issues, the Council fathers conceded that the Reformers'critique was completely on target, that the some of the Church, especially in the hierarchy of Rome, were engaging in decadent practices, such as clerical unchastity, warrior-popes, and the selling of indulgences, which are sacramentals, rather than the 7 sacraments, but all forbidden to be sold(simony) but donations would be accepted. However, more of the Council reasserted traditional teaching and practice, explicitly defending the content ofimmemorial doctrine, but this time with better, more up to date argumentation. Perhaps the most far-reaching concrete (in both senses of the term) result of the Counter Reformation was the seminary, the sequestered institution where would-be priests were, again in both senses of the term, indoctrinated, to more effectively teach the Faith, as opposed to the slip-shod previous regime of apprenticeship. Many of the practices and teachings of the Reformation were returned to Catholicism during the Vatican II council in the 1960's, especially those based directly on the Scriptures' description of the earliest years of the Church. Thus, the Catholic Church conceded many points raised by the Reformers, while lamenting that they had frozen into separate denominations, rather than an intra-family scrum.

On p. 68 Birely notes that the Roman Inquisition executed approx. 100 people in 200 years, and that is 100 too many, but negligible compared to the millions killed by atheist regimes in the 20th century. The Catholic heretical movement called Jansenism tried to out-purify Calvinism, but in stead called forth the so-called enlightenment, which is the foundation for today's secularism, which all Christian denominations have to struggle against.

Overall, I heartily recommend "The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700."
Yar
This is an interesting introduction to an era that traditionally bears the name "Counter Reformation." Bireley, a Jesuit Professor of History at Loyola University of Chicago, argues persuasively in his opening remarks that the term "Counter Reformation" has outlived its usefulness in the study of Catholic history. In fact, he observes, nearly all of what we would call today post-Tridentine reform not only has roots in the fifteenth century but in many cases was in full bloom and inspired the council to do what it did. Trent, in his view of things, was the institutional crest of a wave that had been building for a century. Moreover, Bireley's global view-geographic, political, scientific, theological-invites the reader to view the Church against the backdrop of forces it could not control and critique the many accommodations made by the Church to the world of the seventeenth century.
Why 1450? One reason was geographic exploration. The exploits of DeGama and Columbus reflected a growing sense of the cosmos, later amplified by Galileo and others; a new economic world order, so to speak; and the increasing sense of nationalism and centralization of governments, later abetted by formalized "confessions" of religious doctrine and worship after Luther. Another reason for this new delineation of Catholic epochs was the Renaissance and the humanistic philosophy it nurtured, which the author maintains had significant impact upon many major Catholic leaders of the time, including Ignatius Loyola and Francis de Sales. At the other end of the chronological spectrum, Bireley designates 1700 as a marker because of the impact of Cartesian rationalism upon official Catholic thought in the bigger context of the Enlightenment itself.
Without ignoring the contemporary problems of the "Catholic confession"-papal excesses, poor training of priests, etc.-Bireley is remarkably upbeat about the condition of the Catholic Church at the time of the Reformation and the Council of Trent in the sense that the need for reform was widely recognized and in many places being addressed already. Popular piety throughout Europe was strong in pockets, and the printing press, so often termed a tool of Protestant reformers, was cranking out thousands of copies of "The Imitation of Christ." The author notes that in the late fifteenth century the existing religious orders, or at least many of them, were distinguishing themselves by excellent preaching, pastoral practice, and adaptation.
After 1500, however, the combined challenges of Protestant confessions, humanist demands of higher education, and missionary work, not to mention ecclesiastical reform itself, led to a veritable explosion of new religious orders. Not surprisingly, the Jesuit phenomenon is extensively chronicled. But to his credit, Bireley gives significant attention to Francis de Sales and the Salesian efforts to address the spiritual needs of the new humanized Catholic. Joined with the efforts of the new Capuchins, Ursulines, Oratorians, Hospitalers, Theatines, Oratorians, Visitandines, Piarists, Barnabites, Sulpicians, and the Christian Brothers, to cite several, these movements addressed the above cited needs in ways that have sculpted the Catholic experience to the present day.
It is probably obvious that none of the above named orders is, strictly speaking, contemplative. Bireley contends that the paradigmatic shift in Catholic thinking in this era was toward the world, not away from it. Educators, confessors, and spiritual directors and writers consciously or subconsciously picked up the gauntlet set down by Machiavelli, whose thesis broadly read argues that the marketplace is the arena of practicality, not faith. It is no accident that the curriculum of Catholic schools at every level broadened to include the best of classical thought, that Aquinas and the idea of synthesis came back into style, and the Jesuits added drama and the fine arts to their standard cursus studiorum. Theologically speaking, it was an age of "doing." Loyola himself did not impose choir upon his men to free them for mission. The case study or manualist method of moral theology was born.
Certainly no collective group was doing more than the missionaries. The work of the Church in the new worlds is complex and not without controversy on many levels. Bireley is somewhat limited by this complexity in his attempt to give an overview of the missionary situation, but in general no one can deny that it was not large scale and heroic. The argument is often made that Catholic missionary efforts were part of a larger colonization effort. Bireley implies in his overview that this accusation is probably more appropriate to those missionaries whose monarchs exercised state control of the Church in their kingdoms, such as Spain and Portugal. By contrast, missionaries working more directly with the papacy and the newly formed Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, such as the Jesuits in the East, worked with remarkably less baggage, the Malabar Rites Controversy notwithstanding.
Although only two hundred pages, this is a thought provoking work that on the whole depicts a Roman Catholicism of considerably more vigor and spirituality than is generally attributed to the Reformation era. Certainly the author's thoughts on the importance of the new religious orders, humanism, and ecclesiastical globalization call for further reading and reflection. Curiously, this work, published by The Catholic University of America, was printed in China. One way or another, Francis Xavier was going to get there. It was only a matter of time.
Virtual
Actually, I cannot bear to read it. I would like all scholarly books to be witty in the best sense of the word, or "Chestertonesque" if you prefer.The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700: A Reassessment of the Counter ReformationI was attracted by the fine English Catholic name independently from the obvious high quality of the scholarship.